Right Heart Catheterization
What is Right Heart Catheterrization?
Cardiac catheterization is a minimally invasive procedure generally employed to diagnose and treat certain heart conditions. Diagnostic cardiac catheterization is a procedure that involves insertion of a thin flexible tube (catheter) into the right side of the heart, usually through the groin or arm. Your doctor can perform diagnostic tests and some procedures on your heart with the help of the catheter.
Indications for Right Heart Catheterrization
Catheterization of the right side of the heart is performed through the venous route. It helps in the assessment of the following parameters:
- Measurement of cardiac output, left ventricular filling pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure
- Measurement of right heart oxygen saturations
- Assessment of pulmonary hypertension
- To perform an electrophysiological study
Diagnostic Tests with Right Heart Catheterrization
Cardiac catheterization allows injection of radio-opaque dye for angiography, measurement of intracardiac pressures and oxygen saturations and also assists the passage of electrophysiological instruments, angioplasty and valvuloplasty balloons.
Right Heart Catheterrization Procedure
The procedure is performed via the arterial route or the venous route depending upon the heart condition, anatomical considerations and the preference of your doctor. The common steps involved in diagnostic cardiac catheterization are as follows:
- You are positioned on the operating table and is sedated. The skin overlying an artery or vein is cleaned and sterilized.
- A small incision is made in the skin and a hollow plastic tube is inserted into the blood vessel (artery/vein).
- A catheter is then advanced through the tube into the right heart chamber under fluoroscopic X-ray guidance. The required tests can be performed with the help of the catheters present in the heart chambers.
- After the procedure the catheter and tube are removed.
- Firm pressure is applied to the incisional area for 5-20 minutes to prevent bleeding.
- Following the procedure, the patient has to stay overnight in the hospital and is advised to rest for at least 6-24 hours.
Risks and Complications of Right Heart Catheterrization
Although diagnostic cardiac catheterization is a safe procedure, it carries some risks and complications such as:
- Cardiac tamponade
- Heart attack
- Injury to the coronary artery
- Irregular heart beat
- Reaction to the contrast dye
- Blood clots
- Damage to the blood vessels
- Bleeding, infection, and pain at the insertion site
- Kidney damage due to the contrast dye